Sunday, June 30, 2013

15th Century Day Dress, Linen version

A "day dress"-style gown worn by French women in the early 15th century, in linen for summer.

What it is:
Back in February, I came across an image that caught my eye. It depicts Helen and Paris (of Troy fame) alone in a hallway, having a secret interlude. The composition is lovely in terms of telling a very deep story in a very small amount of space, and is helped considerably by the fact that Paris is quite obviously goosing Mrs. Sparta.

BL MS Harley 4431, fol. 129, detail.
The Book of the Queen, Selected Works of Christine de Pizan, 1410-1414AD.
What really caught my eye, however, was the simplicity of her gown. Up to the point that I found this image, I had believed that the simpler the gown, the lower the class. So here was a solid-colored gown with long fitted sleeves and nothing at all fancy about it worn by a queen. I wondered where else I might see it.

I had some criteria for what I was looking for. First, I wanted to be able to find this type of dress on a range of classes (though I was willing to exclude the lower peasant ranks) to see if it made sense as a gown used beyond class distinctions in a practical manner. Second, it had to be worn in a domestic, secular, or casual environment, but not necessarily all 3 of those at the same time. The idea there was to exclude as much clothing symbolism as possible. Finally, the dress had to appear to be worn as a "fashionable" layer, and not as a fitted/supportive kirtle that was simply uncovered. The distinction in my mind was that a kirtle might purposefully be shown with visible lacing as an element of the dress style, whereas this fashionable gown excluded it.

I came across many examples, but here are a few:

BnF MS Latin 7907 A, fol. 44v.
The Comedies of Terence, Publius Terentius, circa 1400-1407.
Arsenal MS 5070, reserve, fol. 137, detail.
The Decameron, Giovanni Boccaccio, 1432.
BL MS Harley 4431, fol. 107, detail.
The Book of the Queen, Selected Works of Christine de Pizan, 1410-1414AD.
BL MS Harley 4431, fol. 140v.
The Book of the Queen, Selected Works of Christine de Pizan, 1410-1414AD.
BnF MS French 282, fol. 276v.
Facta et dicta memorabilia (Memorable Deeds and Sayings), by Valerius Maximus, 1400-1425.
There are a LOT more out there, so this is just a cross-section sampling. My theory on this dress, and why it is what it is, is that women required a simple gown style that would still be considered fashionable to wear in public (around men), but not inhibit their mobility for regular, daily activities. That's not to say that women weren't wearing houppelandes in their embroideries, but rather to suggest that these regular gowns were used in tandem with "higher" fashions (as appropriate per class) to get a woman through life. You don't typically wear a prom dress on laundry day.

If I had to make some statements about the exact elements this style has, they would be:
  • solid-colored cloth, most likely wool
  • low, wide neckline
  • fitted, long sleeves with no fasteners
  • full skirt just to or just past floor length
  • tight torso to promote a high, minimized bust
That last element, though, needs further clarification. I do not believe that this style is simply a fitted dress with no lacing. I believe that, like all 15th century fashionable layers, this day dress requires the use of a shaping garment underneath, and does not provide any type support on its own. This is in keeping with the evolution of the fitted dress style from the 14th century and the introduction of gowns (houppelandes as well as fitted gowns) worn over once-fashionable cotes (cote hardies).

What is interesting to note about this particular style, however, is that no underlayer (be it a kirtle/cote or a chemise) is seen. It's also worth noting, along with that, that the dress is most often not girdled or held up in which to show a contrasting under skirt. When we begin to see those sorts of treatments, we also begin to see a narrower class range, different sleeve styles, and a wide range of contexts. That's certainly not to exclude the day dress being worn in those situations, but instead to suggest that, when worn in an alternative manner, it's meant to be construed as an altogether different style. Which is what makes the diversity of 15th century women's fashion, despite having a small range of actual garment styles, that much more fun to study!

How I made it:
You can read about the construction of this dress in a dedicated post, here. I went on to make a minor adjustment to the width of the left shoulder (by letting the seam out about a .25"). I'm in the process of finishing the seams, and I also plan to take the top back seam in just a bit to get rid of some of the excess fabric at my shoulder blades.

For this version, I chose to use a single layer of linen specifically for the purpose of having one of these dresses for hot summer events. While linen wouldn't typically have been used by most women as the cloth of choice for a fashion layer, I beg your modern-day indulgence.

I made it to wear over a "short cote", which is also made of a single layer of linen. That garment has front lacing, no sleeves, a wide, low neckline, and a knee-length skirt. And it's really shoddy in terms of construction, since there's no possibility of it being seen in public. I might someday snap a picture of it for you all.

What I think of it:

Considering how quickly I made it, and realizing that there are certainly things I would have done differently if I'd had more time, I love this dress! Not only is it an awesome color, but the single layer linen is incredibly comfortable in the heat. With only a single layer linen fitted cote underneath, the whole outfit performs exactly as intended.

And I'm very happy with my overall shape. It certainly doesn't mask my size, but it handles it gracefully. For one of the first times ever, I really like the way my bust looks. The low, wide neckline was the key to giving me just the right balance of coverage and cleavage. The full skirt is awesome, and makes me feel rich- all that sumptuous leg room!  It's long, which can sometimes be a pain to walk around with, but the pooling effect is appropriate to what's seen in the source imagery.

This one will get a lot of wear through the rest of the summer, so I'm very glad I took the time to make it. It gets me one step closer to that ellusive medieval look I've been searching for!

To view the Flickr set, click here, or to see on Facebook, click here.

I should also mention that my headdress is composed of my huvet, my antenna veil wire horns, a 16" square linen veil, 6 straight pins.

Sunday, June 23, 2013

In Progress: Frilled Hood- Assembly, part 2

After fiddling around with the frills and veil, I decided that I really did need to go back and adjust that center seam one more time. I primarily needed to change the curve at the base of the head to help the collar go where it needed to without too much bunching.

Since I was making that change anyway, I made an additional adjustment on the top curve as well. I don't know if I actually made it better, but I was able to get a better match to my original pattern by straightening the curve a bit more.

I also changed my mind about how to affix the frills. My original idea would have created a lot of gathering that I would need to tame, so I decided to go a different route by trimming the excess off the collar and the front, leaving just enough to fold under.

To get the frills ready, and to help the raw-edged side stay together, I ran a running stitch down the whole length about 1.5" from the front edge.

Then, starting with the collar edge of the main veil (since that long curve makes it the more difficult edge), I pinned the frill to the folded edge.

The stitches (overcast) create a nice, sturdy edge between the main piece and the frills.

I completed the same step on the front frill. Then I grabbed the piece I cut off of the collar to use as the binding on the back side. First, I folded one edge, pinned it into place, and used the overcast stitch again to secure it.

At the ends, the binding hung off (since it was cut from a wider portion of the collar).

So I trimmed that flush with the frills. You can see below that the main piece didn't end up an exact match, but that was fine, since it offered an edge binding, which I'd do later.

I folded the binding over the raw edge of the frills, and tucked it between that and the main piece.

I planned to use an invisible hem stitch to secure the binding edge down, but that wasn't working out on the linen- it wasn't invisible at all and it actually highlighted the thicker band considerably. So I opted to use a straight stitch, since that blended in much better. The piece I trimmed off the front edge was the binding for the front frill.

After the binding was stitched down, I folded in the ends to make sure that no raw edges stuck out. Not perfect. I ended up with an odd fold, but it actually worked out well, so the fold doesn't really bother me.

So now the frilled hood is complete, but it's not yet done. A few days before Simple Day, I'll go through the starching process to bulk up and shape the frills for wearing. For now it's a bit flat.

I look tired. Too many late nights sewing silly headdresses, I think.

While I'm waiting to do that, I've got some sewing odds and ends to catch up on, starting with making some adjustments to the blue linen dress and finishing those seams.

Sunday, June 16, 2013

In Progress: Frilled Hood- Assembly, part 1

After showing my husband the design I wanted to embroider onto his new tunic, he let me off the hook. While I'm still going to work on it, if it isn't complete by Simple Day, he's okay with that. Which frees me up to getting my frilled hood completed in time!

I thought I'd start this post by sharing a photo progression of how I went about pleating the frilled lengths. I know that box pleating isn't really that special, but someone out there might not know how to do it, so for their benefit, this is what I did for each pleat:

1) After hand-creasing the 4" wide strips in half, and getting my half pleat set at the end, I used my measuring tape to mark three sections of 1.5" using pins. In this photo, I've already been pleating, so the first measurement is based off the edge of the previous pleat.

2) Using the linen's grain as a guide to make sure I wasn't too crooked, I made a hand-crease at the first and second pins.

3) Which looked like this. (Now upside down from the first photo.)

4) Using the assistance of the first crease, I fold the first 1.5" section in half, lining the crease and pin up against the previous pleat. Once in place (and even on the front folded edge as well as the back, raw edge), I pinned both edges down.

5) Then using the second crease, I did the same thing on the other side of the middle 1.5", this time lining the last, uncreased pin up to the edge of the pleat.

6) Pinned down on that side, and I have a finished pleat!

As I mentioned in my previous post, I'm using a heavier weight linen for the main veil than what I used on the body, so that the hood shape doesn't warp because it can't stand up to the weight of the frills. In order to determine how heavy the frills would be, however, I needed to remove at least the pins on the front edges. So I went ahead and stitched the pleated folds together at the front edge.

The linen I chose for the main body is a medium weight linen with a fine weave and a great drape. I laid my pattern out onto it (two layers) and added about 2" to the front and collar for securing the frills.

I used a small running stitch to secure the two pieces along the back seam, then secured the seam allowances down. Unfortunately, after I got all that done, I wasn't quite thrilled with the shape/wrinkling I was getting at the very back. The photo below is all I managed to get, and it's not quite a full profile. The major problem is still visible, though- the sagging wrinkle about halfway down the back of my head.

So, I undid all that, adjusted the curve, then re-sewed it.

The second time around, I had more wrinkles at the top, but in general, it looked better. Most of the wrinkling you see here is actually caused by the wrinkling of my old 15-minute Saint Birgitta's Cap. If I switch to my better, newest huvet, I can probably smooth them mostly out and use pins to secure, so I'm just going to have to be comfortable with that, since I can't waste the time and thread to try a 3rd time. I am even more convinced now that the "veil" was not constructed this way in period, but until a bit of evidence that suggests otherwise comes into my radar, it's going to have to suffice.

I also finished the edges of the front shoulders, between the two frill edges. I used blanket stitch to secure the tight corner, where there wasn't enough to do any type of folded or rolled hem. It doesn't photograph too well because it blends in, but that's kind of the point. Here's the outside:

And here's the backside:

The extra fabric on the remaining edges will become the encasing band for the frills. Which comes next.

Wednesday, June 12, 2013

In Progress: Frilled Hood (continued)

Before starting the collar frills, I started to question the shape of my main veil. Getting the curve at the top of the head right is very tricky, and I wasn't happy with what I was getting.

One of the things that makes a lot of sense to me about hoods from the 14th and 15th centuries is that the use of tippets and liripipes off the top of the head effectively makes dealing with the head's curve a moot point. Of all the curves of the body, the head is one of the hardest to fit, and the curve at the back is unique for all of us. Ignoring that curve altogether by adding a stylized shape to the hood eliminates a fair amount of tailoring, time and effort.

Unfortunately, the evidence for what a frilled hood might look like at the back is scant. Some of the best examples we have of the particular headdress style are memorial brasses or effigies, in which the back of the head is either concealed, or simply not addressed. I did find this image, but the roughness of the carving at the back may indicate that it was not actually carved in the back- just given some initial shaping.

The effigy of Maud de Grey (1394, St. Michaels) shows a fair amount of the top of the head, indicating a gentle curve that, at the very least, shows an attention to matching the curve.

Detail of Maud de Grey Effigy, 1394

Unfortunately, the pillow conceals any more information than that.

So I decided to go back to the drawing board on my main piece once again. This time, I went with a very rectangular piece, with only a slight amount of shaping at the neck, and a very basic curve at the top. The top, where it is straight, could be on the fold, but I'm not opposed to having a full seam. After playing around with it, I realized it needed to be shortened, and I still needed the triangular bits that stick out to the front. Here's what it looked like:

The top curve was too loose, and gave me too much of a point, unlike the smooth curve seen on Maud de Grey. So I went back to a curve that matched my head more. I also fiddled with the length some more, trying to find the point at which the veil covered the back of my shoulders, but didn't bunch up a huge amount when the front sat where I wanted it to. A greater curve at the neck helps with that. Ultimately, I ended up with this:

Quite interestingly, the frill lengths for the front and the collar are the same, which makes things easy. The three frills were heavy, so I used one on the bottom. Now that I know the length is the same, I only need to complete one more set of frills. Two for the top, and two for the collar. I may decide to go back to three each, though, if the two look like they'll be too flat. Starching will go a long way to making them look right, so it's a bit hard to know now if three is too much.

I will not be using the same light weight linen for the main body of the veil, since it really is too flimsy to handle the weight of the frills. Instead, I'll use regular medium-weight linen- the same weight I used when I originally tried making a frilled veil. I just have to decide now how to handle attaching the frills to the main veil. I think browsing through Isis's frilled veil work will provide an answer, or at least inspiration.

Unfortunately, I've got to put this project aside so that I can complete my husband's new tunic. I'll be doing an embroidered design on the chest, and I need to have it at least outlined for it to be suitable for him to wear at Simple Day. But first, I have to complete the seam finishing.

If there's enough time before the event to get the frilled hood completed, I'll definitely do that though. It's so close to being ready to rock, and I can't stand the idea of not having it, but promises are promises, and the tunic must come first!

Sunday, June 9, 2013

In Progress: Frilled Veil - 15th Century Hood Style

I had previously tried to make a frilled veil using a linen that was too heavy, so I stopped and tabled the project until I had the right material. A few months ago I purchased several yards of some 3.5oz. white linen for various veils, and finally decided to get back to the frilled veil.

The specific style I was looking to create is less a traditional veil that drapes from the head with a frilled edge, and more a shaped and tailored piece that has more in common with an open hood than a veil. One of my favorite examples of this type of frilled headdress can be seen in this illustration of the woman from Bath in a 1410 edition of Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales".

These sorts of "veils" sport frilled (goffered, honeycomb, etc.) front edges that frame the face, as well as frilled bottom edge "collars" that rest on the shoulders and around the back on the neck. In order to achieve this fit, the main, flat body of the veil can't be flat- there needs to be curve introduced somewhere to remove excess draping and force the collar to land where it does.

I'd struggled for a bit to understand how that works, until Elina from Neulakko posted her frilled veil progress and mentioned that she used her open hood as a pattern. That made perfect sense to me, and was the missing puzzle piece I needed.

Initially I just made a new muslin version of my 14th century open hood, modifying the back to a simple curve, rather than sporting a nubby tippet. I made it a little longer, but didn't too to much more than that, since I really just wanted to experiment to see if I was on the right track. I also assembled a set of frills (just pinned into pleats) to attach.

I might be a little crazy.

Eventually, I switched to a different test fabric so that I could establish the collar. My first working toile looked like this:

I thought I had a good length on the front frills I was using for a test, so I made a second strip and attached both to the toile to see how things were going. Unfortunately, the frills were not as long as I wanted them to be (though they were still at a good, documentable length, they just didn't frame my oval-shaped face nicely.)

Now I'm thinking I might just be a psycho.

After measuring again, I decided to aim for a length somewhere between 21" and 24" (the test frills came in at about 19.5"). After playing around with the math, I settled on making 14 finished box pleats of 1.5" wide each.

I made a mini frill to test how I could finish the rows (below). The pleat between the purple and blue pins is a complete pleat with a 1.5" section over top two folded pleats. To the left of that (blue pins) I've used another 1.5" folded in half, bringing the end inward, ending the line on a fold instead.

I've learned the hard way that cutting before pleating is a bad move. So instead of calculating out how much starting length I need, cutting out the strips, and then crossing my fingers that they all turn out right, I measured out and folded each pleat, one at a time, until I got the 14 full and 2 half pleats I wanted, then cut. Just to be safe. It's a good thing I did that because the if I had cut according to the math, I should have ended up at a length of 22.5", but the imperfections of manually pleating brought the finished length to a smidgen past 23".

I wanted to get away from having to hem these lengths since hems add bulk, not to mention time. Instead, the lightweight linen is well-suited to just being doubled over to create a clean, folded edge along the front. My test frills were 2.75" in depth, unfolded, which was alright, but I started to worry that the final attachment to the veil would make the frills be a bit too stunted. A 4" depth, folded to give me frills of 2" deep, gives me more to work with.

Look- I can occasionally have a clean living room!

After pleating two lengths of frills, I decided to add a third length to bulk it up a bit more. They will be stitched together to give them a fretwork look, as well as starched before wearing, so they will certainly not be flat, but I felt that two was a bit meager.

Once the three frills were pleated and temporarily pinned together, I went back to my toile and determined that I needed to go with a different shape. I like how my 15th century open hoods hug my neck and sit nicely on my shoulders, so I went back to the drawing board using that type of shape instead. The new toile looked like this:

After attaching the frills I determined that the front angle might be a bit too much- sticking a little too far out. I decided to put the toile aside until I had the bottom frills as well to see if their weight would pull that line down were I wanted it to be. The frills are added to the edges of the font and bottom, so they extend about 1.5" past what you see above.

The frills along the bottom edge needed to be around 27" long, which works out to 18 full pleats. I decided to go ahead and also include the half pleats on both ends so that I would still have the folds at the ends. Sitting on my shoulders, the ends are visible from the front.

That's where I've stopped for now. After the collar frills are assembled, I'll finalize the veil shape, transfer it to linen, and assemble. I'm aiming to have this completed for Simple Day the first weekend of July, but I promised my husband that I'd have a tunic he's looked forward to having ready by then as well. Plus I need to correct my new blue linen dress. And possibly make a new tunic for one of my sons.

I might have a little too much on the stove right now.

Sunday, June 2, 2013

A Dress...Fast

Getting ready to go to the event this weekend, it was suddenly obvious that I didn't have anything to wear. I had wool dresses, but since the forecast called for a humid day in the 80's, that wasn't my first choice. I'd already been planning to make a new linen dress (which I'll share my research on in a later post), and I had just completed a hot-weather "short cote" supportive dress (which I'll also share in a later post), so Thursday after dinner I pulled out the linen, pulled out my fitted dress pattern, and got to work.

The dress took me 9 and a half hours to complete to a wearable condition. I used my sewing machine for all seams as well as the bottom hem, then finished the neckline and wrist hems by hand. The seams are unfinished, but that will be remedied before the next event, since the linen does fray.

I tried to remember to take photos as I went, but since I was working so quickly, there aren't that many. Here's the play-by-play:

Thursday, 8:00pm
After clearing off the living room floor (essentially just pushing all the toys and furniture into piles against the walls!) I laid out the linen. It is the "Wisteria" medium-weight linen from, a pale blue that leans toward the periwinkle side. I had 5 yards. I was having some trouble visualizing the layout, since the front of the dress is a full, flat front, and I wanted 30" wide gores with the least amount of waste possible, so I had my mom join me to talk it through.

Thursday, 8:15pm
I'd settled on the layout, and the result was that I had two long rectangles left and just barely enough for long sleeves.

I wanted to try a very full skirt, since up to this point, my dress gores had been well below the 28" I have calculated as an ideal base width for gores proportional the my frame (bust size divided by 2). It was really those wide gores that gave me layout issues, since I wanted them to be wider that half the width of my fabric. The saving grace, however, was that my four gore insertion points are not all in the same vertical position, so some gores could be cut from the shorter piece at the end of the panels, and the longer (half) gores could be cut from the half of the fabric not taken up by the panels.

Thursday, 9:00pm
I had all the pieces, except for the sleeves, cut out. I had taken the time to mark my gore insertion points on the pattern pieces, so I made sure to mark those on the fabric. That made a huge difference in the ease of pinning the half gores onto the panels and getting them to line up. It was probably the biggest time saver after using the machine.

The side and back gores were all half gores, and the front, since it would be inserted into a slit, was a full gore. I could have done half gores there as well, but I didn't want the possible delay of getting a perfectly lined up center seam at the gore point. Plus the simplicity of the full gore added into the flat front just seemed to be a better visual to me.

I sewed the dress together gore by gore, completing one pair by sewing each to their respective panels, sewing them together, then moving on to the next gore pair. This worked out well, until I sewed one half gore to the wrong panel. Then when I realized something was wrong, I pulled the wrong half gore off, not realizing that the other half gore was the problem. This set me back a bit, since I basically brought myself back to square one on that set, but it was a minor hiccup.

Thursday, 10:45pm

After sewing the three sets of half gores and the shoulders together, I called it a night. The insertion of the center front gore (and the cutting of its corresponding slit) just wasn't something I wanted to attempt at that point, and I figured I'd do myself more favors by going to bed.

Friday, 7:45am
After waking up a bit in the morning, I started by putting my short cote on. The blue dress itself isn't a supportive dress, but rather a fashion-layer "gown", so in order to wear it, I have to have a supportive kirtle on underneath.

There was too much fabric in the top, since the pattern was just a starter, and not specific to the shape the short cote provided. After pulling it up about and inch (both the front and back) I had a much better fit across the back. I didn't see any major need to change the other seams, so I left those alone. I made the adjustment, put it on again then marked the front gore point and started to get some marks in place for the neckline and armholes.

I took the dress off again and marked the full line for the center front gore slit, making sure to keep it as much on grain as I could. I also made some initial cuts on the neckline and armholes, just to make it a bit more comfortable to wear the next time I put it on. I started to sew the gore in by hand, but I hadn't really gotten that far before it was time for breakfast.

Friday, 9:30am
When I got back to sewing, I really wasn't having a good time getting the gore in place by hand. After a bit I decided to try using the machine instead. I got a perfect point on the first try.

Friday, 10:00am
I tried the dress on again and marked the sleeve holes and neckline with chalk. I wanted to get a wide, low neckline, since it was the style I needed to achieve, but also because my frame isn't all that well suited to the flat front style anyway, so the more neck and collar I can show, the better. Happy with my marks, I took the dress off and cut the neckline and armholes down.

Friday, 11:00am
I measured my sleeve holes, biceps, wrists and arm lengths and started to make my calculations for drafting the sleeve patterns so that the drafting step could go as quickly as possible. I still use the method in the Medieval Tailor's Assistant for drafting sleeves, which is pretty mathematical, so doing this step ahead of time is a good time saver. At 11:30, I stopped to run some errands.

Friday, 2:00pm
When I got home, I pulled out some scrap paper, my calculations, and a few colors of markers to draft the sleeves. I worked each step of the process for both sleeves at the same time, to save time. Once they were drafted, I transferred one to another piece of paper, cut them out and laid them out on my linen. I had just enough fabric. I normally prefer to do a sample sleeve in waste fabric first, in case there are problems with the drafting, but I charged forward without that step because I didn't have any waste fabric on hand and I didn't want to take more time that needed.

Friday, 3:30pm
With the sleeves cut out, I went back to the sewing machine. I sewed them together and did an initial pin-in on the dress and found that the top of the right sleeve was much larger than it needed to be. I couldn't take the time to troubleshoot the problem to figure out what I had done wrong, but it was either an incorrect measurement or a goof on one of the drafting steps. I corrected it by opening the sleeve and resewing to the sleeve head size I needed. After that, both sleeves went in easily, though I did get a small catch that was easy to pull out and correct.

Friday, 4:00pm

I had less than an hour left to get the dress to a point where I could do what was left at the event (since we needed to get packed and leave to camp), so I pinned the hem to sew that on the machine.

Friday, 4:15pm
The dress was complete and hemmed (longest hem I've ever sewn!), lacking only the finishing on the neckline and wrists. I packed it up, and we headed to the event.

I don't know what time I finally sat down and sewed the neckline, but I was working on it for about a half hour, since I only had feeble lantern light to work by. I used a simple running stitch to make quick work of it.

Saturday, 7:30am
After breakfast I ducked into the pavilion, sat on the bed and sewed the wrist hems, which took about 10 minutes. I used running stitch on those as well. Then I put the dress on for the day!

There are some issues with the dress. The neckline, sleeves and shoulders are not quite right, so as the day went on the dress slid to the back, giving me more fabric across my shoulder blades than I needed, and making the left shoulder slide toward my arm. However, these issues can easily be attributed to my rush in getting it done, and they don't make me dislike the dress in any way. I am extremely happy with it, and I enjoyed wearing it all day. I especially love the fullness of the skirt, and the troubles the wide gores gave me during layout were totally justified.

Now that I have time, I'll give it a wash and do another fitting to see if and where I can make any corrections to the fit. The side seams probably do need some adjustments, and I'd like to try and correct the shoulder issues if I can see a way to do it. I'll also finish the seams, since this is probably going to be my go-to summer gown for a while and I want it to last!

I wasn't really able to get many photos when I wore it yesterday, but I do plan on getting some better, detailed shots here at home, probably after I can see about making the adjustments.